List of economics terms

The study of Economics is often referred to as the “puzzling science” because of the predictions and facts that are most commonly associated with discipline. Economics addresses the choices made by individuals, businesses and governments regarding the use of unavailable resources. The economic concepts you often hear or read about are easy to understand once you understand some of the most basic and frequently used words.

To read more about basic economics:-


Supply is the amount of goods and services a business can produce through its resources. General equipment personnel, equipment and equipment. For example, a car manufacturer’s resources include workers in the line, the plant they are working on, the sheet metal, engine parts and anything used in the production of a car. However, keep in mind that these manufacturers have a very large staff, plant and equipment. The job of managers is to get more production from those limited resources.

Demand is the amount of good or service that consumers are willing to buy at a certain price. With all other things being equal, consumers will buy (demand) more at a lower price than they will get at a higher price. Businesses, on the other hand, will produce (offer) a lot of good if consumers go for a higher price. The reason: huge profits. If producers receive very little profit, they will reduce or stop production.

Read more about demand:-

The dilemma of the producers is to find the fair value of the price at which the quantity demanded equals the price sold. In other words, if their delivery was more than necessary, their scarce resources were wasted by creating too much product. If the delivery does not meet the demand, they will lose potential profits and potential customers who want other goods.

Read more about setting prices on:-

Opportunity Cost

Opportunity cost is the amount that consumers provide for a good or service by choosing a good alternative or service. With scarce resources, people are forced to choose how to satisfy their needs. For example, suppose a couple chooses to spend their $ 4000 tax refund to repair their outdated kitchen. Opportunity costs failed to take the second honeymoon they had planned because money was being spent in the kitchen.


Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is the total monetary value of all goods and services produced within the borders of that country. Gross National Product (GNP) is the total monetary value of all goods and services that a country’s workers produce at home and abroad. Economists see these two values ​​as indicators of how well our economy is doing. Sustainable growth with these totals indicates a healthy economy, with little or no negative growth problem.


The unemployment rate is the percentage of currently unemployed workers. To be considered unemployed by economists, a worker must actively seek work or be temporarily fired. A high unemployment rate can have dire consequences for any economy.


Inflation is the rise in the overall price level of goods and services. Consumer spending is low, without the rise in commodity prices and consequently wages. This reduction in costs will cause manufacturers to stop producing goods, resulting in layoffs and high unemployment. The economy may eventually stagnate or stagnate and the recession (six consecutive months of the GNP’s decline) could be on the horizon.

Short run adjustment in economics(accounting).

Time has important economic variables. The time it takes to export goods, the time the product is housed in the warehouse and the amount of time it takes to build a new store or factory are all factors that determine the cost of goods. In economics, short-run is a variable concept that deals with how quickly prices can change to restore market equity.

Aggregate Supply.

Aggregate supply is the complete economic ability to meet the demand for goods and services at any price. When economists talk about short-term and long-term restructuring, they talk about the range of factors combined – whether the economy can produce more.

Short-Run vs Long Run.

Short-term economies have a huge impact on price. When demand decreases for any reason, prices fall in the short term. When demand increases, prices go up. This is how the market adjusts itself over time. Long-term adjustment occurs when a steady increase or decrease in demand requires an entity to change its practices and may affect commodity prices and production methods.

Negative Output Gas.

Short-term combined supply is the measure of the productive power of the economy. If gross domestic product (GDP) is lower than potential GDP, then there is a negative output gap. That means that most businesses do not generate energy; Industries are not fully operational, and employees can do more before the company has to pay them overtime.

Positive outcomes gaps.

When companies start expanding their product to meet the new requirements of their products, they can have a breathing room for launching operations at the top of the notch without raising a lot of costs. Maybe business owners don’t hire new people, but they pay their employees who work overtime. They do not build a new factory, but they operate the existing factories day and night. At this point, the provisional merger offer just becomes insignificant. Without changing jobs, the economy cannot produce more goods.

Time Frame.

Short-term and long-term performance are important concepts, even if they differ in company. Some business models are more flexible than others. For manufacturers who need to design and build larger, more expensive locations to grow a product, the short-term lasts as long as it takes to complete a task. For a small consulting company, running a short term can be a long one only if it takes hiring a new job.

How to Calculate Elasticity of Supply.

The elasticity of supply is the amount of price volatility based on changes in supply. The price of an elastic good changes when the price changes. If the product is inelastic, the price does not change when the product supply changes. The instability curves are very straight and above. The elastic curves are straight horizontal. The elasticity of supply is a key factor for business managers. Business managers want to know how their product prices will change based on how much they produce.

Determine the original supply and the current supply and the original price and the current price. For example, company A made 1,000 widgets and sold it for $ 4. Currently, the company produces 1,400 units and sells them for $4.50.

Subtract the original supply from the current supply and then divide by the original supply. This is the percentage change in the supply. For example, 1,400 minus 1,000 equals 400. Then, dividing 400 by 1,000 equals 0.4.

Subtract the original price from the current price and then divide by the original price. This is the percentage change in price. For example, $ 4.50 minus $ 4 equals $ 0.50. Then 50 divided by 0.50 $ 4 equals 0.125.

To find the elasticity of supply, divide the percentage change in supply by the percentage change in price. For example, dividing 0.4 by 0.125 equals 3.2.

What Causes an Increasing Marginal Rate of Substitution?

The marginal level of substitution is the level at which a consumer of a particular product is willing to substitute the good for another while maintaining the same level of use. The marginal rate of replacement, exists only in respect of at least two goods. The main factors contributing to the change in the back price of the replacement price are the fair value or service.


Utility refers to the overall enjoyment or value that consumers receive from a particular good or service. The amount of usage that a consumer receives from a good or service is specified for that consumer. For example, a fashion-conscious teenage girl might put a great use on a designer handbag, while a male blue-collar worker might not put any use in this product. In economic theory, consumers tend to make the best use of the limited resources they have.

Marginal Utility.

Marginal Utility is gained by consuming an additional unit of good or service. For example, if a consumer prefers chocolate and has already eaten one piece, his marginal utility for another piece of chocolate may be higher. However, the less he consumes chocolate, the less likely he will want another piece of chocolate, which means his marginal utility is decreasing.

The marginal rate of substitution is the rate at which a consumer of a particular product is willing to replace one good with another while still maintaining the same level of utility. A marginal rate of substitution, therefore, exists only with respect to at least two goods. The primary factors that cause a change in the marginal rate of substitution are price and quantity owned of a good or service.


Utility refers to the overall enjoyment or value a consumer gets from a particular good or service. The amount of utility a consumer derives from a good or service is specific to that consumer. For example, a fashion-conscious teenage girl might place a great deal of utility on a designer handbag, while a male blue-collar worker might place virtually no utility on this product. In economic theory, consumers strive to achieve the greatest possible utility with the limited resources they have.

Marginal Utility

Marginal utility is gained from consuming one extra unit of a good or service. For example, if a consumer has a fondness for chocolate and has already eaten one piece, his marginal utility for another piece of chocolate might be high. However, the more chocolate he consumes, the less he will crave another piece of chocolate, meaning his marginal utility is decreasing.

Abundance of One Good

As one benefit is numerous, the marginal rate of substitution may increase according to another. For example, if a consumer enjoys eating hamburgers and pizza and has an equal amount, the substantial increase in the amount of hamburgers available to the consumer will increase the marginal rate of conversion to pizza. This is because when the supply of pizza is greatly increased, its margin utilization decreases, while the marginal use of hamburgers remains intact. So, consumers get more use out of extra hamburgers than extra pizza.

Reduced Price

Because consumers have limited resources, a change in the price of one commodity changes its exchange rate compared to another product. For example, if a consumer receives equal use of soda and juice, and the price of the juice increases, the marginal rate of substitution for soda will increase, since the consumer will be able to consume the soda cheaper than the more expensive juice.

What Does the Marginal Rate of Substitution Measure?

The marginal rate of substitution is a concept in microeconomics that measures the rate at which a consumer is willing to make the most of one type of exchange and take advantage of another. It extends to concepts such as law enforcement and resource reductions and can be found on careless curves.


In Microeconomics, “utility ” refers to the level of satisfaction consumers experience with consumer goods and services. These goods and services may contain the goods we need or the goods we want. Economists are equating the use of a theoretical wing called use. In general, the more people eat, the higher their consumption. This trend may not continue indefinitely, however, as the law of diminishing utility comes to an end. In other words, the profit we get from using more profits becomes less and less, as consumers have less demand or want more profit.

Indifference Curves

When analyzing consumer preferences between two commodities, economists estimate consumption by volatile curves. Look at the graph that represents the number of apples on the X-axis and the number of oranges on the Y-axis. The indifference curve would then indicate a convex line that curves the origin because consumers generally prefer the equilibrium between the goods. If a consumer has 10 apples, they can probably trade one in orange. It is also possible to trade two in orange. However, with the increasing commercialization of oranges, he may agree to supply fewer and fewer apples with oranges. In total, if he enjoyed apples and oranges equally, the customer would have chosen five apples and five oranges over 10 apples.

Marginal Rate of Substitution.

The marginal rate of replacement measures the amount the consumer is willing to give up for a good deal. When a customer deals with two goods, the depreciation decreases. This is what happens as a result of the statute of limitations for the use of private debt: Taking over one of the advantages becomes less and less satisfying. In the indifference curve, the background rate of replacement is measured by the slope of the curve. An unfortunate situation, with a decrease in the base of the curve indicates a decrease in the backlash rate.


The concepts of consumption and neglect theory are very theoretical and difficult to apply in the real world. However, the concept of a diminished rate of replacement is often used in various economic contexts. It helped to show the relationship between salaries and workers’ efforts, voting intentions and crime. Many economists have argued that the degree of the color deduction is an important concept because it provides a way of comparing and analyzing without using logic.

What Is Consumer Utility?

Consumer Demand

Consumer demand theory analyzes consumer behavior, particularly purchasing behavior, in terms of the needs and the satisfaction of the goods through the consumption of goods.

Utility Theory

Jeremy Bentham coined the term “utility” in the 1700s to refer to the satisfaction of needs and needs, and developed the theory that people are motivated by a desire to increase usage. John Stuart Mill expanded and popularized Bentham’s work, and William Stanley introduced the concept of the Jevons edge application.

Total and Marginal Utility

Consumer demand theory involves an analysis of gross and margin utilization. Marginal utility is the added satisfaction of consuming a good one unit, and aggregate utility is a combination of margin utilities.

Law of Diminishing Marginal Utility

This law states that margin consumption decreases as consumption increases. When you consume more, the margin utilization decreases, so that when each additional unit is consumed, the total utilization grows less rapidly.


If each additional unit of a good is less satisfying, the buyer is willing to pay less and the price is reduced. Thus, there is an inverse correlation between demand price and quantity demanded.

What Is the Relationship Between the Law of Diminishing Marginal Utility & Consumer Surplus?

There is a lot more to being a business manager (or owner) than just knowledge of a particular industry. Understanding the economic managers of what a company actually does will be essential for business managers. Consumer surplus and declining margin utilization are economic considerations related to the benefit consumers receive when purchasing products and services.

Consumer surplus

Consumer surplus is the difference between the amount you are willing to pay for a product or service and its price. For example, if you like ice cream, you may be willing to pay $ 7 for a cone at your favorite ice cream shop. If the store charges $ 4 for a cone, a consumer will get 3 surpluses if they buy one. Consumer surplus is basically the dollar value of the benefit or utility you receive when you buy something.

Decreasing margin utilization

The law to reduce marginal use is an economic concept, which states that the benefit you get from consuming something will eventually become smaller and smaller. For example, you can get a lot of satisfaction from eating an ice cream cone, but eating a second or third cone will get less use. Reducing marginal use explains why a good thing can be kept high.

Law of Diminishing Returns and Surplus

Reducing marginal utility causes consumer surplus to fall. Buying an ice cream cone may give you a surplus of $ 3, but after consuming it, you won’t be willing to pay more for the law, which reduces income. If your willingness to pay drops to $ 2, you only get a surplus of $ 1 when buying a second cone. When you buy more of the same item, the consumer surplus eventually decreases to zero, at which point you are no longer buying.

Business Implications

Consumer surplus and diminishing margin utilization can help business managers understand why customers are making the choices they do and setting prices to maximize returns. For example, if the consumer receives a large surplus from the purchase of a particular item, the business that sells it can increase the price of the item without losing many sales – resulting in profits.

Goods That Are Relatively Elastic.

You may also like...

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *